The Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan

«The important role in maintenance of the constitutional legality is played by the Constitutional Council.

Its activity – a reliable guarantee of conformity of the Kazakhstan legislation to spirit and the letter of the Main law»

N. Nazarbaev

1. 2. 3.

Section II. The Individual and Citizen

Article 10

1. Citizenship of the Republic of Kazakhstan shall be acquired and terminated as prescribed by law, shall be indivisible and equal regardless of the grounds of its acquisition.

2. A citizen of the Republic of Kazakhstan under no circumstances may be deprived of citizenship of the right to change his citizenship, and may not be exiled from the territory of Kazakhstan.

3. Foreign citizenship of a citizen of the Republic shall not be recognized.

Article 11

1. A citizen of the Republic of Kazakhstan may not be extradited to a foreign state unless otherwise stipulated by international treaties of the Republic.

2. The Republic shall guarantee its citizens protection and patronage outside its boundaries.

Article 12

1. Human rights and freedoms in the Republic of Kazakhstan shall be recognized and guaranteed in accordance with this Constitution.

2. Human rights and freedoms shall belong to everyone by virtue of birth, be recognized as absolute and inalienable, and define the contents and implementation of laws and other regulatory legal acts.

3. Every citizen of the Republic shall have rights and bear responsibilities owing to his citizenship.

4. Foreigners and stateless persons in the Republic shall enjoy rights and freedoms as well as bear responsibilities established for the citizens unless otherwise stipulated by the Constitution, laws and international treaties.

5. Exercise of a citizen’s human rights and freedoms must not violate rights and freedoms of other persons, infringe on the constitutional system and public morals.

Article 13

1. Everyone shall have the right to be recognized as subject of the law and protect his rights and freedoms with all means not contradicting the law including self-defense.

2. Everyone shall have the right to judicial defense of his rights and freedoms.

3. Everyone shall have the right to qualified legal assistance. In cases stipulated by law, legal assistance shall be provided free of charge.

Article 14

1. Everyone shall be equal before the law and court.

2. No one shall be subject to any discrimination for reasons of origin, social, property status, occupation, sex, race, nationality, language, attitude towards religion, convictions, place of residence or any other circumstances.

Article 15

1. Everyone shall have the right to life.

2. No one shall have the right to arbitrarily deprive life of a person. The death penalty shall be established by law as an exceptional punishment for terroristic crimes which have resulted in death casualties, and also for especially grave crimes, committed in wartime, with granting to a sentenced person a right to appeal for pardon3.

Article 16

1. Everyone shall have the right to personal freedom.

2. Arrest and detention shall be allowed only in cases stipulated by law and with the sanction of a court with right of appeal of an arrested person. Without the sanction of a court, a person may be detained for a period no more than seventy-two hours4.

3. Every person detained, arrested and accused of committing a crime shall have the right to the assistance of a defense lawyer (defender) from the moment of detention, arrest or accusation.

Article 17

1. A person’s dignity shall be inviolable.

2. No one must be subject to torture, violence or other treatment and punishment that is cruel or humiliating to human dignity.

Article 18

1. Everyone shall have the right to inviolability of private life, personal or family secrets, protection of honor and dignity.

2. Everyone shall have the right to confidentiality of personal deposits and savings, correspondence, telephone conversations, postal, telegraph and other messages. Limitation of this right shall be permitted only in the cases and according to the procedure directly established by law.

3. State bodies, public associations, officials, and the mass media must provide every citizen with the possibility to obtain access to documents, decisions and other sources of information concerning his rights and interests.

Article 19

1. Everyone shall have the right to determine and indicate or not to indicate his national, party and religious affiliation.

2. Everyone shall have the right to use his native language and culture, to freely choose the language of communication, education, instruction and creative activities.

Article 20

1. The freedom of speech and creative activities shall be guaranteed. Censorship shall be prohibited.

2. Everyone shall have the right to freely receive and disseminate information by any means not prohibited by law. The list of items constituting state secrets of the Republic of Kazakhstan shall be determined by law.

3. Propaganda of or agitation for the forcible change of the constitutional system, violation of the integrity of the Republic, undermining of state security, and advocating war, social, racial, national, religious, class and clannish superiority as well as the cult of cruelty and violence shall not be allowed.

Article 21

1. Everyone who has a legal right to stay on the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan shall have the right to freely move about its territory and freely choose a place of residence except in cases stipulated by law.

2. Everyone shall have the right to leave the territory of the Republic. Citizens of the Republic shall have the right to freely return to the Republic.

Article 22

1. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of conscience.

2. The right to freedom of conscience must not specify or limit universal human and civil rights and responsibilities before the state.

Article 23

1. Citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan shall have the right to freedom of forming associations. The activities of public associations shall be regulated by law.

2. The military, employees of national security, law-enforcement bodies and judges must abstain from membership in political parties, trade unions, and actions in support of any political party.

Article 24

1. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of labor, and the free choice of occupation and profession. Involuntary labor shall be permitted only on a sentence of court or in the conditions of a state of emergency or martial law.

2. Everyone shall have the right to safe and hygienic working conditions, to just remuneration for labor without discrimination, as well as to social protection against unemployment.

3. The right to individual and collective labor disputes with the use of methods for resolving them, stipulated by law including the right to strike, shall be recognized.

4. Everyone shall have the right to rest. Working labor agreements stipulating the length of working time, days-off and holidays, and paid annual leave shall be guaranteed by law.

Article 25

1. Housing shall be inviolable. Deprivation of housing shall not be permitted unless otherwise stipulated by a court decision. Penetration into housing, its inspection and search shall be permitted only in cases and according to the procedure stipulated by law.

2. Conditions shall be created in the Republic of Kazakhstan to provide citizens with housing. Citizens in need of housing shall be categorized in a manner to be prescribed by law and provided with housing at an affordable price from the state housing funds in accordance with the norms stipulated by law.

Article 26

1. Citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan may privately own any legally acquired property.

2. Property, including the right of inheritance, shall be guaranteed by law.

3. No one may be deprived of his property unless otherwise stipulated by a court decision. Forcible alienation of property for the public use in extraordinary cases stipulated by law may be exercised on condition of its equivalent compensation.

4. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of entrepreneurial activity, and free use of his property for any legal entrepreneurial activity. Monopolistic activity shall be regulated and limited by law. Unfair competition shall be prohibited.

Article 27

1. Marriage and family, motherhood, fatherhood and childhood shall be under the protection of the state.

2. Care of children and their upbringing shall be a natural right and responsibility of parents.

3. Able-bodied children of age must take care of their disabled parents.

Article 28

1. A citizen of the Republic of Kazakhstan shall be guaranteed a minimum wage and pension, and guaranteed social security in old age, in case of disease, disability or loss of a breadwinner and other legal grounds.

2. Voluntary social insurance, creation of additional forms of social security, and charity shall be encouraged.

Article 29

1. Citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan shall have the right to protection of health.

2. Citizens of the Republic shall be entitled to free, guaranteed, extensive medical assistance established by law.

3. Paid medical treatment shall be provided by state and private medical institutions as well as by persons engaged in private medical practice on the terms and according to the procedures stipulated by law.

Article 30

1. The citizens shall be guaranteed free secondary education in state educational establishments. Secondary education shall be obligatory.

2. A citizen shall have the right to receive on a competitive basis a higher education in a state higher educational establishment.

3. The citizens shall have the right to pay and receive an education in private educational establishments on the basis and terms established by law.

4. The state shall set uniform compulsory standards in education. The activity of any educational establishment must comply with these standards.

Article 31

1. The state shall set an objective to protect the environment favorable for the life and health of the person.

2. Officials shall be held accountable for the concealment of facts and circumstances endangering the life and health of the people in accordance with law.

Article 32

Citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan shall have the right to peacefully and without arms assemble, hold meetings, rallies and demonstrations, street processions and pickets. The use of this right may be restricted by law in the interests of state security, public order, protection of health, rights and freedoms of other persons.

Article 33

1. Citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan shall have the right to participate in the government of the state’s affairs directly and through their representatives, to address personally as well as to direct individual and collective appeals to public and local self-administrative bodies.

2. Citizens of the Republic shall have the right to elect and be elected into public and local self-administrations as well as to participate in an all-nation referendum.

3. The right to elect and be elected, to participate in the all-nation referendum shall not extend to the citizens judged incapable by a court as well as those held in places of confinement on a court’s sentence.

4. Citizens of the Republic shall have the equal right to serve in a public office. The requirements for candidates for public offices shall be conditioned only by the character of the office duties and shall be established by law.

Article 34

1. Everyone must observe the Constitution, legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan and respect the rights, freedoms, honor and dignity of other persons.

2. Everyone must respect the state symbols of the Republic5.

Article 35

Payment of legally established taxes, fees and other obligatory payments shall be a duty and responsibility of everyone.

Article 36

1. Defense of the Republic of Kazakhstan shall be a sacred duty and responsibility of its every citizen.

2. Citizens of the Republic shall perform military service according to the procedure and in the forms established by law.

Article 37

Citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan must care for the protection of historical and cultural heritage, and preserve monuments of history and culture.

Article 38

Citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan must preserve nature and protect natural resources.

Article 39

1. Rights and freedoms of an individual and citizen may be limited only by laws and only to the extent necessary for protection of the constitutional system, defense of the public order, human rights and freedoms, health and morality of the population.

2. Any actions capable of upsetting interethnic concord shall be deemed unconstitutional.

3. Any form of restrictions to the rights and freedoms of the citizens on political grounds shall not be permitted. Rights and freedoms stipulated by articles 10-11; 13-15 paragraph 1 of article 16; article 17; article 19; article 22; paragraph 2 of article 26 of the Constitution shall not be restricted in any event.


 

 

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